Road construction requires the creation of a continuous right-of-way, overcoming geographic obstacles and having grades low enough to permit vehicle or foot travel.(pg15) and may be required to meet standards set by law or official guidelines. The process is often begun with the removal of earth and rock by digging or blasting, construction of embankments, bridges and tunnels, and removal of vegetation (this may involve deforestation) and followed by the laying of pavement material. A variety of road building equipment is employed in road building.
After design, approval, planning, legal and environmental considerations have been addressed alignment of the road is set out by a surveyor. The Radii and gradient are designed and staked out to best suit the natural ground levels and minimize the amount of cut and fill.(page34) Great care is taken to preserve reference Benchmarks(page59)